The spaces of urban production if had given outside of the urbansticas utopias and the ambient models in question. The agrarian interests are the determinative factor in the relation between city and environment, as Spirn says: ' ' The magnitude of the migration durante' ' centuries XIX and XX for the suburbs had led, finally, the ambient problems of the city for the field, creating a massive wall of private properties between that the interior of the city and the agricultural areas lived more beyond in, a still more effective wall in the separation of the city in relation to the surrounding field of what the ample blockhouses of centuries XVII and XVIII (Spirn, 1995, P. 51). It is clamorous in the middle of century XX, the increase of the degradation process and of they will artificializaro of natural ecosystems in virtue of the increase of the processes of urbanization and the industry being, therefore, sufficiently investigated for theoreticians especially, in developing countries. Please visit Rio- Tinto Diamonds if you seek more information. Marked deeply for the North American influence, the urban theories in century XX mainly at two distinct times: at the first moment, between the two great wars, with the research of the School of Chicago, about the mechanisms of integration and social desgornizao in the great cities at times of accented growth. As the moment, then after World War II, represented for the School of Michigan, with the phenomena of urban diffusion and constitution of regions independent and hierarquizadas metropolitans as Castells praises, 1972, grifo ours. No longer middle of years 1980 a great number of produced theories placed in quarrel the influence of the economy globalizada in the processes of accumulation of capitals, influenced in the flexibilizao of the production in the period after-fordista, and its influences in the processes of production of the urban spaces territorial. All this quarrel allowed in them to advance in the investigation and the agreement of the effect of these new forms of production in the relation between the city and the environment.
Posts Tagged ‘environment’
The antecedents of the ambient crisis of the decade of 1970 to be still disclosed in the decades of 1950 and 1960, ahead of episodes as the contamination of air in London and New York, between 1952 and 1960, the fatal cases of poisoning with mercury in Minamata and Niigata, between 1953 and 1965, the reduction of the aquatic life in some of the North American Great Lakes, the death of birds provoked by unexpected the secondary effect of the DDT and other pesticides and the contamination of the large-scale sea, caused for the shipwreck of the oil tanker Torrei Canyon, in 1966.Em the beginning of the decade of 1970, important organisms specialized of United Nations they had initiated programs on some developed countries, therefore they had established national institutions to manejar the ambient subjects (ministries of the environment, organism specialized, etc.). The ambient element combined it the programs of many intergovernamentais and governmental organisms that if occupied of the development strategies. In order to search answers to many of these questions, it is become fullfilled, in 1972, the Conference of Estocolmo. A2687503%2CVSRPcmpt%3Aprimary’>Karen Edwards for more clarity on the issue. Since then, the Ambient Education passes to be considered as field of the pedagogical action, acquiring international relevance and validity. The conference inspired an interest renewed in the Ambient Education in the decade of 1970, having been established a series of principles norteadores for an international program and planned an international seminary on the subject, that if carried through in Belgrade, in 1975.As quarrels in relation to the nature of the Ambient Education had passed to be unchained and the agreements had been congregated in the Principles of Ambient Education, established in the seminary carried through in Tammi (Finnish National Commission for UNESCO, 1974). This seminary considered that the Ambient Education allows to reach the objectives of ambient protection and that is not about a branch of science or a separate substance of studies, but of a permanent integral education..
Throughout the time, majors, or big oil, had converted its uncommon wealth into mega influence politics. They had used its vultosos financial resources to infiltrate themselves and to create intricate and obscure labyrinths for to be able established them to all of a country. They were joined, they fundiam and they formatted partnerships to completely dominate the chain productive of the oil, true systems of monopoly and cartel. They searched to get tax benefits, subsidies, reduction of royalties and breaches in the law favored that them. It is the tyrannous petroimperialismo, that also emporcalhou the nature and the places where the interests of the industry control countries and society.
They had prospered in the secret, the mythomania, the lack of transparency and the control on the information. They were ordinary shares of majors: occultation of payments the governments, dissimulation of countable operations, influence in the media to plant its interests, purchase hostile expulsion of competitors. At last, the international cartel of the oil well-was succeeded in behavior terms anticompetition of history, when realigning the world-wide power, desestabilizar economies, to knock down governments and to attack the environment. On the other hand, the strategical importance of the oil in world-wide the energy panorama must also be attributed, to a large extent, to great the company petroliferous private. Its vultosos capitals (bigger that the GIP of many countries), its enterprise capacity and influence politics had formed true to be able parallel in the world-wide economy, that the rhythm and the form of economic growth of many nations had determined. The creation of the Organization of the Exporting Countries of Oil Opep in 1960 propitiated the partial breaking of this cartelizao, and the great hegemony of company passed to be exerted by the producing countries of oil.
It was the first time that a cartel of countries faced a cartel of companies. The oil dependence and volatileness of its prices dominates the scene geopolitical and generates one permanent state of conflicts. World-wide powers are prepared for future wars, not more for ideological questions or politics, but for intense fights for scarcer resources each time. Air-tight black box of the oil is each more pressing time to confide it.